Results 7 resources
Vieira, M. R., Razente, H. L., Barioni, M. C. N., Hadjieleftheriou, M., Srivastava, D., Traina, C., & Tsotras, V. J. (2011). On Query Result Diversification. Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE 27th International Conference on Data Engineering, 1163–1174. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDE.2011.5767846
In this paper we describe a general framework for evaluation and optimization of methods for diversifying query results. In these methods, an initial ranking candidate set produced by a query is used to construct a result set, where elements are ranked with respect to relevance and diversity features, i.e., the retrieved elements should be as relevant as possible to the query, and, at the same time, the result set should be as diverse as possible. While addressing relevance is relatively simple and has been heavily studied, diversity is a harder problem to solve. One major contribution of this paper is that, using the above framework, we adapt, implement and evaluate several existing methods for diversifying query results. We also propose two new approaches, namely the Greedy with Marginal Contribution (GMC) and the Greedy Randomized with Neighborhood Expansion (GNE) methods. Another major contribution of this paper is that we present the first thorough experimental evaluation of the various diversification techniques implemented in a common framework. We examine the methods' performance with respect to precision, running time and quality of the result. Our experimental results show that while the proposed methods have higher running times, they achieve precision very close to the optimal, while also providing the best result quality. While GMC is deterministic, the randomized approach (GNE) can achieve better result quality if the user is willing to tradeoff running time.
Robertson, S., & Zaragoza, H. (2009). The Probabilistic Relevance Framework: BM25 and Beyond. Foundations and Trends® in Information Retrieval, 3(4), 333–389. https://doi.org/10.1561/1500000019
The Probabilistic Relevance Framework (PRF) is a formal framework for document retrieval, grounded in work done in the 1970–1980s, which led to the development of one of the most successful text-retrieval algorithms, BM25. In recent years, research in the PRF has yielded new retrieval models capable of taking into account document meta-data (especially structure and link-graph information). Again, this has led to one of the most successful Web-search and corporate-search algorithms, BM25F. This work presents the PRF from a conceptual point of view, describing the probabilistic modelling assumptions behind the framework and the different ranking algorithms that result from its application: the binary independence model, relevance feedback models, BM25 and BM25F. It also discusses the relation between the PRF and other statistical models for IR, and covers some related topics, such as the use of non-textual features, and parameter optimisation for models with free parameters.
Agrawal, R., Gollapudi, S., Halverson, A., & Ieong, S. (2009). Diversifying Search Results. Proceedings of the Second ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining, 5–14. https://doi.org/10.1145/1498759.1498766
We study the problem of answering ambiguous web queries in a setting where there exists a taxonomy of information, and that both queries and documents may belong to more than one category according to this taxonomy. We present a systematic approach to diversifying results that aims to minimize the risk of dissatisfaction of the average user. We propose an algorithm that well approximates this objective in general, and is provably optimal for a natural special case. Furthermore, we generalize several classical IR metrics, including NDCG, MRR, and MAP, to explicitly account for the value of diversification. We demonstrate empirically that our algorithm scores higher in these generalized metrics compared to results produced by commercial search engines.
Joachims, T. (2002). Optimizing search engines using clickthrough data. Proceedings of the Eighth ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 133–142. https://doi.org/10.1145/775047.775067
This paper presents an approach to automatically optimizing the retrieval quality of search engines using clickthrough data. Intuitively, a good information retrieval system should present relevant documents high in the ranking, with less relevant documents following below. While previous approaches to learning retrieval functions from examples exist, they typically require training data generated from relevance judgments by experts. This makes them difficult and expensive to apply. The goal of this paper is to develop a method that utilizes clickthrough data for training, namely the query-log of the search engine in connection with the log of links the users clicked on in the presented ranking. Such clickthrough data is available in abundance and can be recorded at very low cost. Taking a Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach, this paper presents a method for learning retrieval functions. From a theoretical perspective, this method is shown to be well-founded in a risk minimization framework. Furthermore, it is shown to be feasible even for large sets of queries and features. The theoretical results are verified in a controlled experiment. It shows that the method can effectively adapt the retrieval function of a meta-search engine to a particular group of users, outperforming Google in terms of retrieval quality after only a couple of hundred training examples.
Salton, G., & Buckley, C. (1988). Term-weighting approaches in automatic text retrieval. Information Processing & Management, 24(5), 513–523. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4573(88)90021-0
The experimental evidence accumulated over the past 20 years indicates that text indexing systems based on the assignment of appropriately weighted single terms produce retrieval results that are superior to those obtainable with other more elaborate text representations. These results depend crucially on the choice of effective termweighting systems. This article summarizes the insights gained in automatic term weighting, and provides baseline single-term-indexing models with which other more elaborate content analysis procedures can be compared.
Salton, G., Wong, A., & Yang, C. S. (1975). A Vector Space Model for Automatic Indexing. Commun. ACM, 18(11), 613–620. https://doi.org/10.1145/361219.361220
In a document retrieval, or other pattern matching environment where stored entities (documents) are compared with each other or with incoming patterns (search requests), it appears that the best indexing (property) space is one where each entity lies as far away from the others as possible; in these circumstances the value of an indexing system may be expressible as a function of the density of the object space; in particular, retrieval performance may correlate inversely with space density. An approach based on space density computations is used to choose an optimum indexing vocabulary for a collection of documents. Typical evaluation results are shown, demonstating the usefulness of the model.
Maron, M. E., & Kuhns, J. L. (1960). On Relevance, Probabilistic Indexing and Information Retrieval. Journal of the ACM, 7(3), 216–244. https://doi.org/10.1145/321033.321035
This paper reports on a novel technique for literature indexing and searching in a mechanized library system. The notion of relevance is taken as the key concept in the theory of information retrieval and a comparative concept of relevance is explicated in terms of the theory of probability. The resulting technique called “Probabilistic Indexing,” allows a computing machine, given a request for information, to make a statistical inference and derive a number (called the “relevance number”) for each document, which is a measure of the probability that the document will satisfy the given request. The result of a search is an ordered list of those documents which satisfy the request ranked according to their probable relevance. The paper goes on to show that whereas in a conventional library system the cross-referencing (“see” and “see also”) is based solely on the “semantical closeness” between index terms, statistical measures of closeness between index terms can be defined and computed. Thus, given an arbitrary request consisting of one (or many) index term(s), a machine can elaborate on it to increase the probability of selecting relevant documents that would not otherwise have been selected. Finally, the paper suggests an interpretation of the whole library problem as one where the request is considered as a clue on the basis of which the library system makes a concatenated statistical inference in order to provide as an output an ordered list of those documents which most probably satisfy the information needs of the user.